Studies have shown that patients with difficult-to-control hypertension (defined as requiring two or more medications) have a higher prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea.

While we don't know the cause, patients with refractory hypertension who also have sleep apnea are noted to have decreases in blood pressure and better-controlled blood pressure once they are placed on CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure masks worn to improve and prolong sleep). (Rosen)

Dr. Ilene Rosen - on-line bio:
Dr. Richard Schwab - on-line bio:

The University of Pennsylvania has one of only two comprehensive sleep divisions in the entire country; we have both an academic and a clinical arm including many different areas of medicine and expertise. As sleep medicine continues to emerge as a new field of medicine, clinically, we offer 20 beds to sleep patients at several different PENN Sleep Center locations throughout the Greater Philadelphia region. Academically, we're doing some fascinating research here in many areas of sleep medicine. For more information, go on-line to:

PENN Medicine is a $2.7 billion enterprise dedicated to the related missions of medical education, biomedical research, and high-quality patient care. PENN Medicine consists of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (founded in 1765 as the nation's first medical school) and the University of Pennsylvania Health System.

Penn's School of Medicine is ranked #2 in the nation for receipt of NIH research funds; and ranked #4 in the nation in U.S. News & World Report's most recent ranking of top research-oriented medical schools. Supporting 1,400 fulltime faculty and 700 students, the School of Medicine is recognized worldwide for its superior education and training of the next generation of physician-scientists and leaders of academic medicine.

The University of Pennsylvania Health System includes three hospitals [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, which is consistently ranked one of the nation's few "Honor Roll" hospitals by U.S. News & World Report; Pennsylvania Hospital, the nation's first hospital; and Penn Presbyterian Medical Center]; a faculty practice plan; a primary-care provider network; two multispecialty satellite facilities; and home care and hospice.

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